የአለም አገራት ዝርዝር

የአለም አገራት ዋናዋና ከተሞች ስም ዝርዝስ

የአገራት ዝርዝር

አጭርና ይፋዊ ስያሜዎችተመድ አባል?የልዑላዊነት ክርክር? [ነጥብ 1]ተጨማሪ መረጃ [ነጥብ 3]
A AAAA AAAA AAA
ZZZየተመድ አባላት ወይም የተመድ ተመልካች አገራትA AAAZZZ
ZZZአብካዚያ → አብካዚያUN member stateNone
  አፍጋኒስታን – የአስጋኒስታን እስላማዊ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  አልባኒያ – የአልባኒያ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  አልጄሪያ – የአልጄሪያ ሕዝባዊ ዴሞክራቲክ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  አንዶራ – የአንዶራ ልዑላዊነትA አዎA የለምየአንዶራ መንግሥት ልዑል ሹመት በፈረንሳይ ፕሬዝዳንትና በኡርዠል አገረ ስብከት ኤጲስ ቆጶስ (የሮማ ካቶሊክ ቤተ ክርስቲያን) በጋራ ይካፈላል።[1]
  አንጎላ – የአንጎላ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  አንቲጋ እና ባርቡዳA አዎA የለምአንቲጋ እና ባርቡዳ የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት ነው።[ነጥብ 4]በአገሩ ውስጥ ባርቡዳ ራስ-ገዥ ክልል ነው። [ነጥብ 5][2]
  አርጀንቲና – አርጀንቲን ሪፐብሊክ [ነጥብ 6]A አዎA የለምአርጀንቲንና የ23 ክፍላገሮችና አንድ ራስ-ገዥ ከተማ ፌዴራሲዮን ነው። እንግሊዝ በሚያስተዳድራቸው የፋልክላንድ ደሴቶች እና ደቡብ ጂዮርጅያ እና ደቡብ ሳንድዊች ደሴቶች ላይ ባለው ሥልጣን አርጀንቲና ይገባኛል ባይ ነው።[3] አርጀንቲና ደግሞ በአርጀንቲን አንታርክቲካ ላይ እንደ ብሔራዊ ግዛት ይገባኛል ይላል። በይፋ የቲዬራ ዴል ፍዌጎ፣ አንታርክቲካና የደቡብ አትላንቲክ ደሴቶች ክፍላገር ክፍል ሲሆን እንግሊዝና ቺሌ ደግሞ ይህን ግዛት በከፊል ይገባኛል ይላሉ።[ነጥብ 7][4]
  አርሜኒያ – የአርሜኒያ ሬፐብሊክA አዎፓኪስታን አልተቀበለም።[5][6]
  አውስትራሊያ – የአውስትራሊያ ኮመንዌልዝA አዎA የለምአውስትራሊያ የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት[ነጥብ 4] ሲሆን የ6 ክፍላገሮችና የ10 ግዛቶች ፌዴራሲዮን ነው። የአውስትራሊያ አፍዓዊ ግዛቶች የሚከተሉ ናቸው፦
  ኦስትሪያ – የኦስትሪያ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል ሲሆን[ነጥብ 2] ኦስትሪያ የ9 ክፍላገሮች (ቡንደስላንደር) ፌዴራሲዮን ነው።
ZZZአዛዋድ → አዛዋድአዎየለም
  አዘርባይጃን – የአዘርባይጃን ሬፐብሊክA አዎA የለምአዘርባይጃን 2 ራስ-ገዥ አውራጃዎች አሉት፦ ናቅቺቫን እና ናጎርኖ-ካራባቅ (Dağlıq Qarabağ) ናቸው።[ነጥብ 5] በናጎርኖ-ካራባቅ ተግባራዊ ነፃ መንግሥት ተመሠርቷል።
  ባሃማስ – የባሃማስ ኮመንዌልዝA አዎA የለምባሃማስ የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት ነው።[ነጥብ 4]
  ባሕሬን – የባሕሬን ንጉዛትA አዎA የለም
  ባንግላዴሽ – የባንግላዴሽ ሕዝባዊ ሬፑብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ባርቤዶስA አዎA የለምባርቤዶስ የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት ነው።[ነጥብ 4]
  ቤላሩስ – የቤላሩስ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ቤልጅግ – የቤልጅግ ንጉዛትA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል ሲሆን[ነጥብ 2] ቤልጅግ ኅብረተሠቦቹና ክልሎቹ በየቋንቋ መሠረት የሚለያይበት ፌዴራሲዮን ነው።
  ቤሊዝA አዎA የለምቤሊዝ የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት ነው።[ነጥብ 4]
  ቤኒን – የቤኒን ሪፐብሊክ [ነጥብ 8]A አዎA የለም
  ቡታን – የቡታን ንጉዛትA አዎA የለም
  ቦሊቪያ – ብዙ ብሔር ያለው ሀገረ ቦሊቪያA አዎA የለም
  ቦስኒያና ሄርጸጎቪናA አዎA የለምቦስኒያና ሄርጸጎቪና የሁለት አባላት ፌዴራሲዮን ነው፤ እነርሱም የቦስኒያና ሄርጸጎቪና ፌዴራሲዮን እና ሬፑብሊካ ስርፕስካ ናቸው።[ነጥብ 9]
  ቦትስዋና – የቦትስዋና ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ብራዚል – የብራዚል ፌዴራስያዊ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለምብራዚል የ26 ክፍላገራትና የ1 ፌዴራላዊ ወረዳ ፌዴራሲዮን ነው።
  ብሩነይ – ሀገረ ብሩነይ፣ የሰላም ማደሪያA አዎA የለምብሩነይ በስፕራትሊ ደሴቶች ላይ በከፊል ይገባኛል ይላል።[ነጥብ 10]
  ቡልጋሪያ – የቡልጋሪያ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  ቡርኪና ፋሶ [ነጥብ 11]A አዎA የለም
  በርማ – የምያንማር ህብረት ሪፐብሊክ[ነጥብ 12][8]A አዎA የለም
  ቡሩንዲ – የቡሩንዲ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ካምቦዲያ – የካምቦዲያ ንጉዛትA አዎA የለም
  ካሜሩን – የካሜሩን ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ካናዳ [ነጥብ 13]A አዎA የለምካናዳ የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት[ነጥብ 4] ሲሆን የ10 ክፍላገራትና 3 ግዛቶች ፌዴራሲዮን ነው።
  ኬፕ ቨርድ – የኬፕ ቨርድ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  የመካከለኛው አፍሪካ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ቻድ – የቻድ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ቺሌ – የቺሌ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለምፋሲካ ደሴት እና ዋን ፌርናንዴዝ ደሴቶችቫልፓራይሶ አውራጃ ውስጥ የቺሌ «ልዩ ግዛቶች» ናቸው። ቺሌ በአንታርክቲካ ከፊል ላይ እንደ ማጋያኔስ እና አንታርክቲካ ቺሌና አውራጃ ክፍል ይግባኝ ይላል። እንግሊዝና አርጀንቲና ደግሞ በዚህ ክፍል ውስጥ ይግባኝ ባዮች ናቸው።[ነጥብ 7]
  ቻይና – የቻይና ሕዝባዊ ሪፐብሊክ[ነጥብ 14]A አዎመለጠፊያ:Claimedbyየቻይና ሕዝባዊ ሪፐብሊክ አምስት ራስ-ገዥ አውራጃቆች አሉት፤ ጓንግሢውስጣዊ ሞንጎሊያኒንግሥያሢንጅያንግ እና ቲቤት ናቸው።[ነጥብ 5] በተጨማሪ፣ በሚከተሉት ልዩ አስተዳደራዊ አውራጃዎች ላይ ሥልጣን አለው፦

ደግሞ በሚከተሉት ግዛቶች ላይ ይግባኝ ይላል፦

አክሳይ ቺን በቻይና ሕዝባዊ ሪፐብሊክ የተገዛ ሲሆን ሕንድ እንደ ጃሙና ካሽሚር ክፍል ይግባኝ ይላል።[ነጥብ 17]22 የተ.መ.ድ. አባላት እና ቫቲካን የቻይናን ሕዝባዊ ሪፐብሊክ አይቀብሉምና በፈንታው የቻይናን ሪፐብሊክ (ታይዋንን) ይቀብላሉ።[ነጥብ 18]

  ኮሎምቢያ – የኮሎምቢያ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ኮሞሮስ –የኮሞሮስ ኅብረትA አዎA የለምኮሞሮስ የ3 ደሴቶች ፌዴራሲዮን ሲሆን በፈረንሳይ በተገዛ ደሴት ማዮት ላይ 4ኛው ሆኖ ይግባኝ ይላል።[ነጥብ 19][9] ኮሞሮስና ማዳጋስካር ደግሞ በፈረንሳይ በተገዛው ባንክ ዱ ዠይሲር ላይ ይግባኝ ይላሉ።[3]
  ኮንጎ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ (ኮንጎ-ኪንሻሳ) [ነጥብ 20]A አዎA የለም
  ኮንጎ ሪፐብሊክ (ኮንጎ-ብራዛቪል)A አዎA የለም
  ኮስታ ሪካ – የኮስታ ሪካ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ኮት ዲቯር – የኮት ዲቯር ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ክሮኤሽያ – የክሮኤሽያ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ኩባ – የኩባ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ቆጵሮስ – የቆጵሮስ ሪፐብሊክA አዎቱርክ ወይም በ[[#ስሜን ቆጵሮስ|]] አልተቀበለም።የአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of South Cyprus".[10]
  ቼክ ሪፐብሊክ [ነጥብ 21]A አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  ዴንማርክ – Kingdom of DenmarkA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]

The Danish Realm also includes two self-governing territories:

  ጅቡቲ – Republic of DjiboutiA አዎA የለም
  ዶመኒካ – Commonwealth of DominicaA አዎA የለም
  ዶሚኒካን ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ምሥራቅ ቲሞር – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste [ነጥብ 22]A አዎA የለም
  ኤኳዶር – Republic of EcuadorA አዎA የለም
  ግብፅ – የግብፅ ዓረብ ሪፑብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ኤል ሳልቫዶር – የኤል ሳልቫዶር ሪፑብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ኢኳቶሪያል ጊኔ – Republic of Equatorial GuineaA አዎA የለም
  ኤርትራ – የኤርትራ አገርA አዎA የለም
  ኤስቶኒያ – የኤስቶኒያ ሪፑብሊክA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  ኢትዮጵያ – የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለምEthiopia is a federation of 9 regions and 2 chartered cities.
  ፊጂ – የፊጂ ሪፑብሊክA አዎA የለምFiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.[ነጥብ 5][11][12]
  ፊንላንድ – የፊንላንድ ሪፑብሊክA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  ፈረንሣይ – French RepublicA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2] French overseas regions/departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion) are full, integral parts of France.

The French Republic also includes the overseas territories of:

Clipperton Island is a possession of the government. French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser, Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Mayotte, and Tromelin Island is disputed in part by Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros.[3]

  ጋቦን – Gabonese RepublicA አዎA የለም
Gambia   ጋምቢያ – Republic of The GambiaA አዎA የለም
  ጂዮርጂያA አዎA የለምGeorgia contains 2 autonomous regions, Adjara and Abkhazia.[ነጥብ 5] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
  ጀርመን – Federal Republic of GermanyA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Länder).
  ጋና – Republic of GhanaA አዎA የለም
  ግሪክ – Hellenic RepublicA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.[13]
  ግሬናዳA አዎA የለምGrenada is a የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት.[ነጥብ 4]
  ጓተማላ – Republic of GuatemalaA አዎA የለም
  ጊኔ – Republic of GuineaA አዎA የለም
  ጊኔ-ቢሳው – Republic of Guinea-BissauA አዎA የለም
  ጋያና – Co-operative Republic of GuyanaA አዎA የለምAll land west of the Essequibo River is claimed by Venezuela.[3]
  ሃይቲ – Republic of HaitiA አዎA የለም
  ሆንዱራስ – Republic of HondurasA አዎA የለም
  ሀንጋሪA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  አይስላንድ – Republic of IcelandA አዎA የለም
  ህንድ – Republic of IndiaA አዎA የለምIndia is a federation of 28 states and 7 union territories. Indian sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh is disputed by the People's Republic of China.[3] India claims sovereignty over the whole of Kashmir, but administers only part of it as the federated state of Jammu and Kashmir.[ነጥብ 17]
  ኢንዶኔዥያ – Republic of IndonesiaA አዎA የለምIndonesia has 3 provinces with official special autonomy status: Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Papua, and West Papua.[ነጥብ 5]
  ኢራን – Islamic Republic of IranA አዎA የለም
  ኢራቅ – Republic of IraqA አዎA የለምIraq is a federation[ነጥብ 19][14] of 18 governorates, 3 of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.[ነጥብ 5]
  አየርላንድ [ነጥብ 24]A አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]

The Constitution of Ireland asserts the aspiration towards creating a United Ireland by peaceful means.[15]

  እስራኤል – State of IsraelA አዎNot recognized by 33 statesIsrael annexed East Jerusalem, and occupies the Golan Heights[16] and parts of the West Bank. These areas are not internationally-recognised as being part of Israel.[3] Israel no longer has a permanent military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, but is still considered the occupying power under international law.[17][18][19][20][21] Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) and by the SADR.
  ኢጣልያ – Italian RepublicA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2] Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[ነጥብ 5]
  ጃማይካA አዎA የለምJamaica is a የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት.[ነጥብ 4]
  ጃፓንA አዎA የለምJapan disputes Russian administration of the South Kuril Islands.
  ጆርዳን – Hashemite Kingdom of JordanA አዎA የለም
  ካዛክስታን – Republic of KazakhstanA አዎA የለም
  ኬንያ – Republic of KenyaA አዎA የለም
  ኪሪባስ – የኪሪባስ ሪፐብሊክA አዎA የለም
  ሰሜን ኮርያ – Democratic People's Republic of KoreaA አዎመለጠፊያ:ClaimedbyNorth Korea is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[ነጥብ 25][22]
  ደቡብ ኮርያ – Republic of KoreaA አዎመለጠፊያ:ClaimedbySouth Korea contains 1 autonomous region, Jeju-do.[ነጥብ 5][23] South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[ነጥብ 25]
ZZZKosovo → Kosovoአዎየለም
  ኩዌት – State of KuwaitA አዎA የለም
  ኪርጊዝስታን – Kyrgyz RepublicA አዎA የለም
  ላውስ – Lao People's Democratic RepublicA አዎA የለም
  ላትቪያ – Republic of LatviaA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  ሊባኖስ – Lebanese RepublicA አዎA የለም
  ሌሶቶ – Kingdom of LesothoA አዎA የለም
  ላይቤሪያ – Republic of LiberiaA አዎA የለም
  ሊቢያA አዎA የለምThe former government of Muammar Gaddafi, which claims to be the sole legitimate representative of the Libyan people, still has some international recognition (see Foreign relations of the National Transitional Council and Foreign relations of Libya under Gaddafi).
  ሊክተንስታይን – Principality of LiechtensteinA አዎA የለም
  ሊትዌኒያ – Republic of LithuaniaA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  ሉክሰምበርግ – Grand Duchy of LuxembourgA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  መቄዶንያ – Republic of MacedoniaA አዎA የለምBecause of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
  ማዳጋስካር – Republic of MadagascarA አዎA የለምMadagascar claims the French territories of Banc du Geyser, Juan de Nova Island, and the Glorioso Islands.[3]
  ማላዊ – Republic of MalawiA አዎA የለም
  ማሌዢያA አዎA የለምMalaysia is a federation of 13 states and 3 federal territories. Malaysia claims part of the Spratly Islands.[ነጥብ 10]
  ማልዲቭስ – Republic of MaldivesA አዎA የለም
  ማሊ – Republic of MaliA አዎA የለምMali claims Azawad, an unrecognised state, as part of its sovereign territory.
  ማልታ – Republic of MaltaA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  ማርሻል ደሴቶች – Republic of the Marshall IslandsA አዎA የለምUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States.
  ሞሪታኒያ – Islamic Republic of MauritaniaA አዎA የለም
  ሞሪሸስ – Republic of MauritiusA አዎA የለምMauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[ነጥብ 5] Mauritius claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French island of Tromelin.[3]
  ሜክሲኮ – United Mexican StatesA አዎA የለምMexico is a federation of 31 states and 1 federal district.
  የማይክሮኔዥያ ተባባሪ ክፍላገሮችA አዎA የለምUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of 4 states.
  ሞልዶቫ – Republic of MoldovaA አዎA የለምMoldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state.
  ሞናኮ – Principality of MonacoA አዎA የለም
  ሞንጎልያA አዎA የለም
  ሞንቴኔግሮA አዎA የለም
  ሞሮኮ – Kingdom of MoroccoA አዎA የለምMorocco claims sovereignty over Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputes Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Melilla and the "Plazas de soberanía".[3]
  ሞዛምቢክ – Republic of MozambiqueA አዎA የለም
Myanmar → Burmaአዎየለም
ZZZNagorno-Karabakh → Nagorno-Karabakhአዎየለም
  ናሚቢያ – Republic of NamibiaA አዎA የለም
  ናውሩ – Republic of NauruA አዎA የለም
  ኔፓል – Federal Democratic Republic of NepalA አዎA የለምNepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.
  የኔዘርላንድ ነገሥት መንግሥተ – Kingdom of the NetherlandsA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2] The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four constituent countries:

The monarch and her ministers form the government of the kingdom as well as the government of the country the Netherlands. Following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, Curaçao and Sint Maarten have become constituent countries, which, alongside Aruba, enjoy considerable autonomy. The other three islands (Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius) became special municipalities of the Netherlands.

The designation "Netherlands" can refer to either one of the Kingdom's constituent countries or to the short name for the Kingdom (e.g., in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

  ኒው ዚላንድA አዎA የለምNew Zealand is a የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት[ነጥብ 4] and has responsibilities for (but has no sovereignty over) two freely associated states:

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 31 and 6 UN members respectively.[24][25][26] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN,[27] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

New Zealand has the dependent territories of:

The Tokelauan government claims sovereignty over Swains Island, part of American Samoa, a territory of the United States.[28] New Zealand does not recognize the Tokelauan claim.[29]

  ኒካራጓ – Republic of NicaraguaA አዎA Claims the San Andrés archipelago, currently part of Colombian territorial watersNicaragua contains 2 autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[ነጥብ 5]
  ኒጄር – Republic of NigerA አዎA የለም
  ናይጄሪያ – Federal Republic of NigeriaA አዎA የለምNigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.
ZZZNiue → Niueአዎየለም
ZZZNorthern Cyprus → Northern Cyprusአዎየለም
  ኖርዌይ – Kingdom of NorwayA አዎA የለምSvalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Svalbard Treaty.

Bouvet Island is a dependent territory of Norway. Norway also claims Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land as dependent territories of Norway.[ነጥብ 7]

  ኦማን – Sultanate of OmanA አዎA የለም
  ፓኪስታን – Islamic Republic of PakistanA አዎA የለምPakistan is a federation of 4 provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes Indian sovereignty over Kashmir. It exercises control over some areas, but does not explicitly claim any part of it,[30][31] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[32][33] The portions that it controls are divided into two polities, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[ነጥብ 17]
  ፓላው – Republic of PalauA አዎA የለምUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States.
ZZZPalestine → Palestineአዎየለም
  ፓናማ – Republic of PanamaA አዎA የለም
  ፓፑዋ ኒው ጊኒ – Independent State of Papua New GuineaA አዎA የለምPapua New Guinea is a የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት[ነጥብ 4] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.[ነጥብ 5]
  ፓራጓይ – Republic of ParaguayA አዎA የለም
  ፔሩ – Republic of PeruA አዎA የለም
  ፊሊፒንስ – Republic of the PhilippinesA አዎA የለምThe Philippines contains two autonomous regions, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao[ነጥብ 5] and the Cordillera Administrative Region.[34] The Philippines administers Scarborough Shoal and some of the Spratly Islands,[ነጥብ 10] and claims sovereignty over the Macclesfield Bank and Sabah, which is part of Malaysia.[3]
  ፖላንድ – Republic of PolandA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  ፖርቱጋል – Portuguese RepublicA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2] Portugal contains 2 autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[ነጥብ 5] Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga.[3]
Pridnestrovie → Transnistriaአዎየለም
  ኳታር – State of QatarA አዎA የለም
  ሮማንያA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  ሩሲያ – Russian FederationA አዎA የለምRussia is officially a federation of 83 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[ነጥብ 5] Sovereignty over the South Kuril Islands is disputed by Japan.
  ሩዋንዳ – Republic of RwandaA አዎA የለም
ZZZየሳህራ አረብ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሬፑብሊክ → የሳህራ አረብ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሬፑብሊክአዎየለም
  ሰይንት ኪትስና ኒቨስ – Federation of Saint Kitts and NevisA አዎA የለምSaint Kitts and Nevis is a የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት[ነጥብ 4] and is a federation [ነጥብ 19] of 14 parishes.
  ሰይንት ሉሻA አዎA የለምSaint Lucia is a የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት.[ነጥብ 4]
  ሰይንት ቪንሰንትና ዘ ግረነዲንዝA አዎA የለምSaint Vincent and the Grenadines is a የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት.[ነጥብ 4]
  ሳሞዓ – Independent State of SamoaA አዎA የለም
  ሳን ማሪኖ – Republic of San MarinoA አዎA የለም
  ሳን ቶሜ እና ፕሪንሲፔ – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and PríncipeA አዎA የለምSão Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.[ነጥብ 5]
  ሳዑዲ አረቢያ – Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaA አዎA የለም
  ሴኔጋል – Republic of SenegalA አዎA የለም
  ሰርቢያ – Republic of SerbiaA አዎA የለምSerbia contains 2 autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[ነጥብ 5] Most of the latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo.
  ሲሸልስ – Republic of SeychellesA አዎA የለምSeychelles claims the British Indian Ocean Territory.[3]
  ሴየራ ሌዎን – Republic of Sierra LeoneA አዎA የለም
  ሲንጋፖር – Republic of SingaporeA አዎA የለም
  ስሎቫኪያ – Slovak RepublicA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  ስሎቬኒያ – Republic of SloveniaA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  ሰለሞን ደሴቶችA አዎA የለምThe Solomon Islands is a የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት.[ነጥብ 4]
  ሶማሊያ – Somali RepublicA አዎA የለምSomalia is presently divided with its official government (TFG) controlling only part of the country. Puntland and Galmudug have declared themselves as autonomous regions of Somalia (a claim that the TFG does not recognise),[35]መለጠፊያ:Request quotation while Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state.
ZZZSomaliland → Somalilandአዎየለም
  ደቡብ አፍሪካ – Republic of South AfricaA አዎA የለም
South Korea → Korea, Republic ofአዎየለም
ZZZSouth Ossetia → South Ossetiaአዎየለም
  ደቡብ ሱዳን – Republic of South SudanA አዎA የለምSouth Sudan is a federation of 10 states. Disputes Abyei with the Republic of the Sudan.[3]
  እስፓንያ – Kingdom of SpainA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2] Spain is divided into autonomous communities and cities.[ነጥብ 5] Sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas is disputed by Morocco. Sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga is disputed by Portugal. Spain calls for sovereignty over Gibraltar.[3]
  ስሪ ላንካ – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri LankaA አዎA የለምFormerly known as Ceylon.
  ሱዳን – Republic of the SudanA አዎA የለምSudan is a federation of 17 states. Disputes Abyei and Kafia Kingi with South Sudan.
  ሱሪናም – Republic of SurinameA አዎA የለም
  ስዋዚላንድ – Kingdom of SwazilandA አዎA የለም
  ስዊድን – Kingdom of SwedenA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2]
  ስዊዘርላንድ – Swiss ConfederationA አዎA የለምSwitzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
  ሶርያ – Syrian Arab RepublicA አዎA የለምIsrael occupies the Golan Heights.[16]
ZZZTaiwan (Republic of China) → Taiwanአዎየለም
  ታጂኪስታን – Republic of TajikistanA አዎA የለምTajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[ነጥብ 5]
  ታንዛኒያ – United Republic of TanzaniaA አዎA የለምTanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.[ነጥብ 5]
  ታይላንድ – Kingdom of ThailandA አዎA የለም
Timor-Leste → East Timorአዎየለም
  ቶጎ – Togolese RepublicA አዎA የለም
  ቶንጋ – Kingdom of TongaA አዎA የለም
ZZZTransnistria → Transnistriaአዎየለም
  ትሪኒዳድና ቶቤጎ – Republic of Trinidad and TobagoA አዎA የለምTrinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.[ነጥብ 5]
  ቱኒዚያ – Republic of TunisiaA አዎA የለም
  ቱርክ – Republic of TurkeyA አዎA የለም
  ቱርክምኒስታንA አዎA የለም
  ቱቫሉA አዎA የለምTuvalu is a የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት.[ነጥብ 4]
  ዩጋንዳ – Republic of UgandaA አዎA የለም
  ዩክሬንA አዎA የለምUkraine contains 1 autonomous region, Crimea.[ነጥብ 5]
  የተባበሩት የዓረብ ግዛቶችA አዎA የለምThe United Arab Emirates is a federation of 7 emirates.
  ዩናይትድ ኪንግደም – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandA አዎA የለምየአውሮፓ ሕብረት አባል[ነጥብ 2] The United Kingdom is a የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛት[ነጥብ 4] consisting of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

  አሜሪካ – United States of AmericaA አዎA የለምThe United States is a federation of 50 states, 1 federal district, and the incorporated territory of Palmyra Atoll. The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:

In addition, there are uninhabited possessions of the United States in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Navassa Island, and Wake Island. The United States also asserts claims to Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank.[3]

  ኡራጓይ – Oriental Republic of UruguayA አዎA የለም
  ኡዝቤኪስታን – Republic of UzbekistanA አዎA የለምUzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[ነጥብ 5]
  ቫኑዋቱ – Republic of VanuatuA አዎA የለም
  ቫቲካን ከተማ – State of the Vatican CityA UN observer stateA የለምAdministered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 179 states.[36] The Holy See is a permanent observer of the UN in the category of "Non-member State"[37] and a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City. The Holy See also administers a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy.
  ቬኔዝዌላ – Bolivarian Republic of VenezuelaA አዎA የለምVenezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.
  ቬት ናም – Socialist Republic of VietnamA አዎA የለምVietnam claims sovereignty over the Paracel[ነጥብ 16] and Spratly Islands.[ነጥብ 10][3]
  የመን – Republic of YemenA አዎA የለም
  ዛምቢያ – Republic of ZambiaA አዎA የለም
  ዚምባብዌ – Republic of ZimbabweA አዎA የለም
ZZZUN member states and observer statesA ZZZZZZ
ZZZABB
ZZZ↓ Other states ↓D AAAZZZ
  አብካዚያ – Republic of AbkhaziaD No membershipመለጠፊያ:ClaimedbyRecognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Tuvalu,[38] Vanuatu, Venezuela,[39] South Ossetia and Transnistria.[40] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
  አዛዋድD No membershipመለጠፊያ:ClaimedbyIndependence from Mali declared on 6 April 2012.[41] No recognitions have been given.
  ኩክ ደሴቶችD Member of some UN specialized agenciesA የለምA state in free association with New Zealand, recognized by Japan,[42] Netherlands[43] and China.[44] The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[27] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
  ኮሶቮ – Republic of KosovoD Member of some UN specialized agenciesመለጠፊያ:ClaimedbyKosovo unilaterally declared independence in 2008 and it has መለጠፊያ:Numrec and the Republic of China. Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo is formally under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
  አርጻኽ – Republic of ArtsakhD No membershipመለጠፊያ:ClaimedbyA de facto independent state,[45][46] recognised only by Abkhazia,[47] South Ossetia[47] and Transnistria.[47][48] Claimed in whole by አዘርባይጃን.[49]
  ኒዌD Member of some UN specialized agenciesA የለምA state in free association with New Zealand, recognized by China.[50] Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[27] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
  ሰሜን ቆጵሮስ – Turkish Republic of Northern CyprusD No membershipClaimed by CyprusRecognised only by Turkey. It has participated as an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation under the name "Turkish Cypriot State" since 1979. In addition, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic regards TRNC as sovereign but Azerbaijan has not followed suit.[ዋቢ መጻሕፍት ያስፈልገዋል] Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[51]
  ፍልስጤም – State of PalestineD Member of one UN specialized agencyመለጠፊያ:ClaimedbyThe declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from መለጠፊያ:Numrec states.[52] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on the territory that it proclaimed.[53] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, which has permanent observer status at the United Nations General Assembly as a non-member entity.[37] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO.[54]
  የሳህራ አረብ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሬፑብሊክD No membershipመለጠፊያ:ClaimedbyRecognised by 84 other states. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
  ሶማሊላንድ – Republic of SomalilandD No membershipመለጠፊያ:ClaimedbyA de facto independent state,[55][56][57] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Somali Republic.[58]
  ደቡብ ኦሴቲያ – Republic of South OssetiaD No membershipመለጠፊያ:ClaimedbyA de facto independent state,[59] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela,[39] Abkhazia and Transnistria.[40] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[60]
  Taiwan – Republic of China[ነጥብ 14]D Former UN member state;

Participant in some UN related organizations as "Chinese Taipei"

መለጠፊያ:ClaimedbyA state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[ነጥብ 10] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[61] The Republic of China is recognised by መለጠፊያ:Numrec, including the Holy See. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[ነጥብ 15] The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, International Olympic Committee and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei". The Republic of China enjoyed UN membership from 1945 to 1971.
ከገአኸነአወሰኘከ – Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (Pridnestrovie, Trans-Dniester)D No membershipመለጠፊያ:ClaimedbyA de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[40] Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.[62]
ZZZ↑ Other states ↑D ZZZZZZ
ZZZZZZZZZZZZ

Criteria for inclusion

The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood that defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states." Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood, an example of which can be found in the Montevideo Convention, argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognized as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:

  • (a) have declared independence and are often regarded as having control over a permanently populated territory

or

  • (b) are recognized as a sovereign state by at least one other sovereign state

Note that in some cases there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed.

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 207 entities:[63][Note 1]

ነጥቦች

  1. ^ በዚሁ ዓምድ ውስጥ በአንድ አገር መላው ግዛት ላይ ያለው ክርክር ሲኖር ብቻ ያመልክታል። በአገሩ ከፊል ላይ የሥልጣን ክርክር ሲኖር «ተጨማሪ መረጃ» በሚል ዓምድ ይገኛል።
  2. ^ የአውሮፓ ሕብረት 27 አባላት ሉአላዊነታቸውን በከፊል (በሕግ አማካሪ፣ አስፈጻሚና ችሎታዊ ሥልጣናት ረገድ) ለሕብረቱ አዛውረዋል። [7]
  3. ^ ተጨማሪ መረጃ፦
  4. ^ የኮመንዌልዝ ግዛቶች የአገራት ኮመንዌልዝ አባላት ናቸው። ግዛቶቹ ነጻነት ያላቸውና ራሳቸውን የቻሉ ሲሆኑ የሁላቸው መንግሥት መሪ በይፋ ዳግማዊት ንግሥት እልሳቤጥ ናቸው።
  5. ^ ስለ ራስ-ገዥ ክልሎች በተጨማሪ ለመረዳት የራስ-ገዥ ክልሎች ዝርዝር በየአገሩ ይዩ።
  6. ^ በአርጀንቲና ሕገ መንግሥት መሠረት (አንቀጽ 35) የሚከተሉት ስያሜዎች በይፋ ይቀበላሉ፦ «አርጀንቲን ሬፐብሊክ»፣ «አርጀንቲን ሕብረት» ወይም «የሪዮ ዴ ላ ፕላታ ተባባሪ ክፍላገራት»፤ ከዚህ በላይ በሕግጋት ውስጥ «አርጀንቲን ብሔር» እንዲባል ተመሠረተ።
  7. ^ The continent of Antarctica, including its outlying islands south of 60°S, are held in abeyance under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty System. Under this treaty, territorial claims in this region are neither recognised nor disputed. Claimant countries are Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom, with all those save Argentina and Chile mutually recognising each others claims.
  8. ^ ስያሜው እስከ 1967 ዓ.ም. ድረስ በይፋ ዳሆሜ ተባለ።
  9. ^ ስለ ቦስኒያና ሄርጸጎቪና አከፋፈል ለመረዳት፣ የደይተን ስምምነት እና አጠቃላይ መዋቅር ስምምነት ለሰላም በቦስኒያና ሄርጸጎቪና Archived ጁን 4, 2015 at the Wayback Machine (14 ዲሴምበር 1995 እ.ኤ.አ.) ጽሑፍ ይዩ።. Office of the High Representative. (እንግሊዝኛ)
  10. ^ ስፕራትሊ ደሴቶች ግዛት በቻይና ሕዝባዊ ሪፐብሊክየቻይና ሪፐብሊክቬትናም፣ በከፊሉም በብሩነይ፣ ማሌዢያ፣ እና ፊሊፒንስ የተከረከረ ነው። ከብሩነይ በስተቀር፣ እያንዳንዱ የዴሴቶቹን ከፊል ይዟል።
  11. ^ ወይም ቡርኪና፣ ቀድሞ እስከ 1976 ዓ.ም. ድረስ ስሙ በይፋ «ላይኛ ቮልታ» ነበረ።
  12. ^ በ1981 ዓ.ም. በርማ ስሙን በይፋ ወደ «ምያንማር» ቀየረ። በ2003 ዓ.ም.፣ ከ«የምያንማር ኅብረት» ወደ «የምያንማር ኅብረት ሪፐብሊክ» ተቀየረ።
  13. ^ አሁን የአገሩ ሕጋዊ ስም «ካናዳ» ብቻ ነው፤ «የካናዳ ግዛት» አሁን አይጠቀምም።
  14. ^ የቻይና ሕዝባዊ ሪፐብሊክ በተለመደ «ቻይና» ሲባል የቻይና ሪፐብሊክ በተለመደ «ታይዋን» ይባላል። አንዳንዴ የቻይና ሪፐብሊክ ደግሞ «ቻይናዊ ታይፔ» ተብሎ በይፋ ይታወቃል።
  15. ^ In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories currently under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  16. ^ ቬትናምየቻይና ሪፐብሊክ ደግሞ በፓራሴል ደሴቶች ላይ ይግባኝ ባዮች ናቸው።
  17. ^ Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
  18. ^ ደግሞ ከቻይና ሕዝባዊ ሪፐብሊክ ጋራ ዲፕሎማቲካዊ ግንኙነት የተመሠረተባቸው ወቅቶች ዝርዝር እና የቻይና ሕዝባዊ ሪፐብሊክ ውጭ አገር ግንኙነት
  19. ^ ስለ ፌዴራላዊ መንግሥታት ለመረዳት፣ ፌዴራሲዮን ይዩ።
  20. ^ ደግሞ ኮንጎ-ኪንሻሳ ይባላል። ከ1963 እስከ 1989 ዓ.ም. ድረስ፣ ስሙ በይፋ ዛዪር ነበረ።
  21. ^ A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
  22. ^ The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
  23. ^ Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  24. ^ The Irish state is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish the state from the island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
  25. ^ Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.
  1. ^ The non-state sovereign entity Order of Malta is not included. It claims neither statehood nor any territory. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.

References

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  2. ^ Government of Antigua and Barbuda. "Chapter 44: The Barbuda Local Government Act". Laws of Antigua and Barbuda. Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. በ2010-11-10 የተወሰደ.
  3. ^ "Disputes - International". CIA World Factbook. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. በ8 November 2011 የተወሰደ.
  4. ^ Government of the United States, Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1989). Polar prospects: a minerals treaty for Antarctica. United States Government Printing Office. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4289-2232-7.  "Mutual recognition of claims has been limited to Australia, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom ... Chile and Argentina do not recognize each other's claims ..."
  5. ^ Pakistan Worldview - Report 21 - Visit to Azerbaijan Archived ፌብሩዌሪ 19, 2009 at the Wayback Machine Senate of Pakistan — Senate foreign relations committee, 2008
  6. ^ Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] - Today.Az
  7. ^ Europa, retrieved 28 February 2011
  8. ^ "Myanmar gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. 21 October 2010. http://ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCATRE69K2HM20101021 በ22 October 2010 የተቃኘ. 
  9. ^ የኮሞሮስ ሕገ መንግሥት፣ አንቀጽ 1።
  10. ^ SeeRepublic of Turkey Ministry for European Union Affairs Archived ሴፕቴምበር 26, 2015 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  11. ^ "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. http://www.itc.gov.fj/lawnet/fiji_act/cap122.html በ2010-07-10 የተቃኘ.  Archived ኤፕሪል 19, 2005 at the Wayback Machineመለጠፊያ:Dead link
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  13. ^ Constitution of Greece, Art. 105.
  14. ^ Source: Iraqi constitution
  15. ^ "Constitution of Ireland – Burnreacht na hÉireann". Government of Ireland. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. በ8 November 2011 የተወሰደ. “Article 3: It is the firm will of the Irish Nation...to unite all the people who share the territory of the island of Ireland...recognising that a united Ireland shall be brought about only by peaceful means”
  16. ^ Occupied territory:
  17. ^ Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. በ2010-07-16 የተወሰደ.
  18. ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. በ2010-07-16 የተወሰደ.
  19. ^ መለጠፊያ:Cite press release
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  21. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch (29 October 2004). Archived from the original on 2020-07-12. በ2010-07-16 የተወሰደ.
  22. ^ "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". በ2008-10-27 የተወሰደ.
  23. ^ Keun Min. "Greetings". Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. በ2010-11-10 የተወሰደ.
  24. ^ Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. በ2010-07-16 የተወሰደ. For more information, see Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
  25. ^ China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. በ2010-07-16 የተወሰደ.
  26. ^ Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs". United Nations. በ2010-07-16 የተወሰደ.
  27. ^ http://untreaty.un.org/cod/repertory/art102/english/rep_supp8_vol6-art102_e_advance.pdf
  28. ^ Radio New Zealand International (26 March 2007). "American Samoa governor ready to resist Tokelau’s claim to Swains Island". Radio New Zealand Ltd. በ2010-07-16 የተወሰደ.
  29. ^ Government of New Zealand; Government of Tokelau (8 October 2007). "Draft Constitution of Tokelau – English". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade. Archived from the original on 2010-05-22. በ2010-07-16 የተወሰደ.
  30. ^ Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1.
  31. ^ Aslam, Tasnim (11 December 2006). "'Pakistan Does Not Claim Kashmir As An Integral Part...'". Outlook India (The Outlook Group). http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?233374. 
  32. ^ Williams, Kristen P. (2001). Despite nationalist conflicts: theory and practice of maintaining world peace. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-0-275-96934-9. http://books.google.com/?id=OYmurpH3ahsC. 
  33. ^ Pruthi, R.K. (2001). An Encyclopaedic Survey Of Global Terrorism In 21St Century. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-81-261-1091-9. http://books.google.com/?id=C3yDkKDbZ3YC. 
  34. ^ "EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 220 July 15, 1987". በ2011-07-29 የተወሰደ.
  35. ^ Weller, Marc; Nobbs, Katherine (2010). Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. Philadelphia, United States: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4230-0. http://books.google.com/?id=ru-DIWuuObEC. 
  36. ^ "Bilateral relations of the Holy See". Holy See website. በ2012-06-05 የተወሰደ.
  37. ^ "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations (29 February 2008). በ30 August 2010 የተወሰደ.
  38. ^ "On the establishment of diplomatic relations between Republic of Abkhazia and Tuvalu. | The Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Abkhazia". Mfaabkhazia.net. በ2011-12-18 የተወሰደ.
  39. ^ "Chavez Backs Abkhazia, South Ossetia". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. 27 July 2010. http://www.times.spb.ru/index.php?action_id=2&story_id=32067 በ5 June 2011 የተቃኘ. 
  40. ^ "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же" (በRussian). newsru.com (2006-11-17). በ2011-06-05 የተወሰደ.
  41. ^ "Déclaration D’Indépendance de L'Azawad". National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (2012-04-06). Archived from the original on 2012-10-18. በ2012-04-06 የተወሰደ.
  42. ^ "Lecture by Prime Minister Puna of the Cook Islands -State recognition of the Cook Islands to lead to furthering cooperation". Meiji University (2011-06-22). በ2012-01-14 የተወሰደ.
  43. ^ "Cook Islands and the Netherlands establish Diplomatic Relations". The Cook Islands Herald. 2011-08-17. http://www.ciherald.co.ck/articles/h577a.htm በ2012-01-14 የተቃኘ. 
  44. ^ "Joint Communique Between the People's Republic of China and the Cook Islands on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". The Embassy of the People's Republic of China in New Zealand (2003-10-27). በ2012-01-14 የተወሰደ.
  45. ^ Krüger, Heiko (2010). The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Legal Analysis. Springer. p. 55. ISBN 978-3-642-11787-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=7JDCQu-Us8sC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA55#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  46. ^ Nikoghosyan, Hovhannes (August 2010). "Kosovo ruling implications for Armenia and Azerbaijan". HULIQ.com (Hareyan Publishing, LLC). http://www.huliq.com/1/803-kosovo-ruling-implications-armenia-and-azerbaijan በ2011-04-17 የተቃኘ. 
  47. ^ Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", - сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." - сказал он."
  48. ^ "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie (2010-05-26). Archived from the original on 2008-05-11. በ2010-06-29 የተወሰደ.
  49. ^ See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  50. ^ "Joint Comminuque on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations Between Niue and the People's Republic of China". Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Lithuania (2007-12-19). በ2012-02-07 የተወሰደ.
  51. ^ See The World Factbook|Cyprus Archived ዲሴምበር 26, 2018 at the Wayback Machine (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  52. ^ Palestine Liberation Organization. "Road For Palestinian Statehood: Recognition and Admission". Negotiations Affairs Department. በ2011-07-28 የተወሰደ.
  53. ^ See the following on statehood criteria: "...the Palestinian State also meets the traditional criteria under the Montevideo Convention..."; "...the fact that a majority of states have recognized Palestine as a State should easily fulfill the requisite state practice". "It is possible, however, to argue for Palestinian statehood based on the constitutive theory". "Whether one applies the criteria of statehood set out in the Montevideo Convention or the more widely accepted constitutive theory of statehood, Palestine might be considered a state."
  54. ^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. በ3 December 2011 የተወሰደ.
  55. ^ International Crisis Group (23 May 2006), "Somaliland: Time for African Union leadership", Africa Report (110): 10–13, archived from the original on 2011-07-20, https://web.archive.org/web/20110720022321/http://www.operationspaix.net/IMG/pdf/ICG_Somaliland_AU_Leadership_2006-05-23_.pdf በ2011-04-19 የተቃኘ 
  56. ^ Mesfin, Berouk (September 2009), "The political development of Somaliland and its conflict with Puntland", ISS Paper (Institute for Security Studies) (200): 8, http://www.somalilandtimes.net/sl/2009/403/P200.pdf በ2011-04-19 የተቃኘ 
  57. ^ Arieff, Alexis, "De Facto Statehood? The Strange Case of Somaliland", Yale Journal of International Affairs (Spring/Summer 2008), archived from the original on 2011-12-13, https://web.archive.org/web/20111213214545/http://yalejournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/083206arieff.pdf በ2011-04-17 የተቃኘ 
  58. ^ See Regions and territories: Somaliland (30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  59. ^ Jansen, Dinah (2009), "The Conflict between Self-Determination and Territorial Integrity: the South Ossetian Paradigm", Geopolitics vs. Global Governance: Reinterpreting International Security (Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, University of Dalhousie): 222–242, ISBN 978-1-896440-61-3, http://centreforforeignpolicystudies.dal.ca/pdf/gradsymp09/Jansen.pdf 
  60. ^ "Russia condemned for recognizing rebel regions". CNN.com (Cable News Network). 2008-08-26. http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/08/26/russia.vote.georgia/index.html በ2008-08-26 የተቃኘ. 
  61. ^ "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2008/10/08/2003425320. 
  62. ^ 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  63. ^ The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.

Bibliography